Ukraine: Oceanological Center of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was established on 08 December 1999. It was designed to create favourable conditions for fundamental and applied marine sciences in Ukraine, elaboration of an integration concept and technology for rational use of the marine environment, increase of the efficiency of the scientific-technical potential of the research institutes and technical means monitoring the marine environment. The Oceanological Center unites the Marine Hydrophysical Institute and the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas with their research branches.


  • fundamental and applied oceanographic studies of the seas and oceans aimed at creating scientific basis for monitoring, diagnosis and prognosis of the state of marine environment;
  • complex investigation of the Black - Azov Sea basin for developing the technological basis for rational use of its resources, forecast and prevention of negative anthropogenic impact upon the marine environment and its recovery;
  • development of new methods and technical means to monitor the marine environment and to investigate the physical, chemical, geological and biological processes; promotion of technological collection, processing and systematic analysis of oceanological information.

Marine Hydrophysical Institute was established in 1948 in Moscow on the basis of the Black Sea Hydrophysical Station and the Marine Hydrophysical Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences (previously the department of the Institute of Theoretical Geophysics of the USSR Academy of Sciences) In 1961 the Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI) was affiliated to the system of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences and in 1963 it moved to Sevastopol. Up to date, the institute has carried out more than 200 expeditions to the Black Sea and other regions of the World Ocean.

Profile of the MHI NASU:

  • Multidisciplinary studies of the Black Sea and the World Ocean shelf areas;
  • Fundamental and applied studies of marine environment;
  • Creation and development of marine information systems and technologies;
  • Remote sensing research and satellite data processing;
  • Creation and development of new approaches and methods for investigation of ecological processes.

Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas the research of the (IBSS) is aimed at collecting and treating the fundamental data on functioning of marine ecosystems, studying biodiversity, biotechnology, mariculture, deutsche porno, xhamster, youjizz, xxx, porno, video porno, kostenlose pornofilme, xvideos, youporn, pornos, porno,, pornhub, videos porno, parasitology, protection of environment and developing measures against pollution. Special attention is paid to the study and the modelling of biological and ecological processes in the Black Sea.

Profile of the IBSS:

  • Marine biology.
  • Ecology.
  • Protection of environment.
  • Biotechnology.

Structure of the IBSS:

  • IBSS (Headquarters) Sevastopol
  • Sea Aquarium-museum
  • IBSS Odessa Branch
  • State Reserve "Danube Rush Islands"
  • IBSS Karadag Branch
  • State Reserve "Karadag"
  • Experimental Station "Batiliman"

Institute of Geological Sciences is responsible for exploration and assessment of mineral resources in the Ukraine. The experimental program of the institute focuses on the study of the underwater geology and recent sedimentation patterns in the Black Sea. Area of research involves the interactions between biological and geological processes, gas recovery and distribution of minerals in the deep sea.

Ukrainian Scientific Center of Ecology of Sea was created in January 1992 on the basis of the Odessa Branch of the State Oceanographic Institute (ODSOIN) established in 1970. The UkrSCES is a research institute belonging to the Ministry for Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine.

Profile and facilities:

UkrSCES has good scientific and technical facilities. New chemical equipment allows to measure a wide spectrum of pollutants, including nutrients and radioactivity in the marine environment. Advanced server computers, GIS station with GIS software allow to process miscellaneous types of marine and coastal data, use new techniques for the management of geo information and study of such environmental problems as marine pollution and ecosystems recovery.

  • The research of the institute focuses on the following:
  • Complex investigation of marine ecosystems;
  • Development of scientific bases of ecological expertise and ecological audit;
  • Development of Integrated Coastal Zone Management programs;
  • Investigations of the hydrochemical state of Black and Azov seas;
  • Assessment of land-based sources of pollution;
  • Investigation of physical and chemical processes in the Black Sea;
  • Investigation of radioactive contamination of marine waters, suspended and bottom sediments of the Black and Azov seas, estuaries and mouths of the rivers;
  • Creation of databases, data bank, maps using GIS technologies;

Structure of the UkrSCES:

  • Department of Sea Ecological Monitoring and Expedition Research consists of four laboratories - analytical research and methodological development, hydrobiology, radioecology and atmospheric chemistry;
  • Department of Scientific Bases of Marine Environmental Use includes laboratory of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and GIS technologies, laboratory of ecological expertise;
  • Department - Data Bank;
  • Department of Scientific and Technical Information and International Communications;
  • Base of expedition fleet with departments of navigation safety, technical maintenance of fleet, financial , etc.

Marine Branch of Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute was established in 1971 on the base of the Hydrometeorological Observatory of the Azov-Black Sea basin. Before 1992 it had name Sevastopol Branch of the State Oceanographic Institute of the Hydrometeorological Service of USSR. In 1992 it was transformed into the MB UHMI (head institution is in Kiev) closely relating to the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine.

Profile of the MB UNMI:

  • climatology of marine processes within the Azov-Black sea basin;
  • oceanography and chemical pollution of coastal zones;
  • estuarine and deltaic processes;
  • marine hydrometeorological observations and service technologies;
  • development and application of marine forecasting methods;
  • integration of different marine data including satellite remote sensing information;
  • development of specialised GIS and DSS for marine and coastal environments

Facilities of the MB UHMI:

* extensive database on regional marine meteorology, oceanography and pollution; * close connection to the marine observational hydrometeorological network of Ukraine; * boat and technical equipment for the studies and monitoring of Sevastopol bays and open coastal waters, suspended bottom sediments, air and precipitation properties; * certified chemical laboratories.

Hydrometeorological Stations and Posts (27):

Alushta, Belgorod-Dnestrovsky, Cherson, Chersoneski Mayak, Chernomorskoye, Evpatoriya, Feodosiya, Geroiskoye, Horly, Ilyichevsk, Kasperovka, Kerch, Nikolaev, Ochakov, Odessa port, Paromnaya Pereprava, Parutino, Primorskoye, Sevastopol, Skadovsk, Stanislav, Stereguschiy, Tsaregradskoye Girlo, Ust-Dunaisk, Yalta, Yuzviy, Zavetnoye.

Hydro-Chemical Points:

Seven stations and observatories (including MB UHMI) have small research vessels implementing the regular hydrometeorological and chemical observations in the Black Sea coastal waters within the distance from 1-2 to 5-10 miles. Regular ship observations are executed in following regions.

Southern seashore of Crimea, port of Yalta. Oceanographic surveys on 30 stations in the 5-miles band of coastal waters between the towns Alushta and Alupka; 10-miles "secular" sections from the port of Yalta towards the south-east; "secular" roadstead station on the distance 1 mile from Yalta. R/v "Neptun".

South-western coast of Crimea, port of Sevastopol. Oceanographic surveys on 15-30 stations in 5-mile coastal waters between the cape Lukull and cape Sarytch; surveys of Sevastopol bight on 10-15 stations or the cross-sections on 5-7 stations along the bight's axis. R/v "Poriv".

Region of the Danube river mouth, port of Izmail. Oceanographic surveys on 50 stations in 50-mile coastal waters from the Danube's mouth to the island Zmeiny; 20-miles "secular" sections on 9 stations along the latitude 45°20' N. R/v "Meridian".

Dnieper-Bug estuary and marine coastal waters, port of Nikolaev. Surveys in the Dniper-Bug estuary on 25-30 stations and 3-9 stations within the marine coastal waters. R/v "Typhoon".

Kertch Strait, village Opasnoye. Surveys of the Kertch Strait on 15-20 stations; "secular" section across the strait on 8 stations; "secular" roadstead station in the center of the strait. R/v "Burun".

Odessa pollution monitoring on 2 stations Ilychevsk hydrographic measurements on up to 5 stations on monthly basis. List of variables measured during survey implementation is: temperature, salinity, color and transparency of seawater, standard meteorology, currents (non regularly), water samples for chemistry and pollution. Surveys and standard sections accomplish seasonally (four times per year). Information from coastal network is collected in the database of MB UHMI and is used for scientific analysis and end-user services.

Observational Type (except of Azov Sea Station) :

Standard meteorological parameters; Seawater temperature; Seawater salinity; Significant height of wind waves; Direction of wind waves; Mean period of wind waves; Ice conditions; Dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nutrients; nitrogen total, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium nitrate, phosphate. Pollutants: oil products, phenol, chlorophenol, nitrophenol, mercury, lead, chromium, cuprum, iron, pesticides.

Instrumental Base: 27 stations of the coastal monitoring network carry out the observations on the sea level fluctuations (16 posts are equipped with sea level recorder). 21 stations monitor wave height and sea conditions (7 posts have wave-recorders). All the shore stations measure wind direction and speed using wind meter/indicator M-63 or weathercock, air temperature and water temperature, ice conditions. 23 stations measure salinity ones a day using salinometer or chlorine titration method.

During the off-shore oceanographic surveys of routine marine monitoring, standard equipment is used onboard of small ships and boats: Nansen's bottles and deep-water thermometers for hydrological measurements and water sampling, mechanical current meters.

Surveys executed by scientific institutes in the coastal zone and deep-water interior of the Black Sea use CTD probes and electronic current meters.

Ship Surveys:

Vladimir ParshinThe UkrSCES has the following research vessels that are used for expeditions in the remote areas and coastal zones:

"Viktor Bugaev", "Georgi Ushakov", "Ernst Krenkel" (Gross tons: 4400 t; Speed 13.5 kn; Type: ice-breaker; Endurance: 55 days; Crew + scientists: max 110);

"Yakov Gakkel" (Gross tons: 1125 t; Speed 10.0 kn; Endurance:20 days; Crew + scientists:max 40);

"Yug" (Gross tons: 32.5 t; Length: 19 m; Width: 3.8 m; Speed 10.0 kn; Crew + scientists: max 9).

R/V "Vladimir Parshin" is specially destined for the Black, Azov and Mediterranean seas studies (Gross tons: 727 t; Speed 12.0 kn; Endurance: 250 days; Crew + scientists: max 40; Labs: 4; Equipment: hydrobiological system, hydrochemical pH-meter WTW-530, automatic shipboard meteorological station MIDAS-321, hydrological/hydrochemical oceanographic measuring system KATRAN; sea current parameter meters; reference thermometers types TR-1, TSPN, PTS-10, hydro-winch );

The IBSS has research vessel "Professor Vodyanitskiy" that is a multifunctional vessel with suitability to conduct a broad spectrum of works including stern trawling with pelagic and demersal trawls. Its parameters are following: Length: 68.77 m, Depth: 6.03 m, Tonnage: 1172 69 rt, Craine frame-craine: 10t, Winches: 7, Labs: 11, Equipment: computer center, GPS navigator, CTD profiler, water sampler rosette, bathometers, nets, dredge, freezers, refrigerators, etc.

The Ministry of Science and Education / Sevastopol Group of Research Vessels has research vessel "Gorizont" (Gross tons: 1347 t, Speed: 15.4 knots; Length: 59.90 m; Width: 10.40m; Cruising range: 2200 miles (maximum speed); Crew: 28, Passenger: 34; Labs: biological, chemical).

Professor VodyanitskiyThe Experimental Branch of MHI NASU has research vessel " Striz" used for near shore monitoring. The vessel is registered at Katsiveli, the Crimea . Its characteristics are the following: water displacement - 3.2t, speed - 13.5, range - 100 miles, number of cruises - every month in summer, crew - 2, scientific crew - 6, measured parameters - hydrology, equipment on board - CTD.

Stationary buoys and platforms:

Regular hydrometeorological observations are conducted on the two stationary platforms in the Ukrainian Black Sea:

• Oceanographic platform located near the southern seashore of the Crimean peninsula (Fig. 18), owner : MHI NASU, Experimental Branch, Katsiveli village.

• Gas platform located in the North-western shelf of the Black Sea , owner: Black Sea Oil and Gas Company.

The gas platform situated in the north-western shelf of the Black Sea is equipped with the set of instruments for measurements of standard hydrological and meteorological parameters, wind and wave characteristics including one-dimensional wave gauge and near surface wind profile measurements.


Pilot drifter experiments in the Black Sea began in 1999. There were three types of buoys, which have been used during experiments from 1999 to 2003. They were SVP (Surface Velocity Programme) drifters, SVP-B (Surface Velocity Programme Barometer) drifters and XAN-3 drifters with total number-59.

Satellite Observations:

The MHI NASU has an operational HRPT (1.7 GHz) receiving station with 2 m dish antenna. For AVHRR data observed region is limited by 10 W-70 E and 25 N- 60 N. Specialists of MHI NASU and Sevastopol Radio Plant designed the station in 1995. MHI NASU specialists made all software for station maintaining and data processing. Data archive contains AVHRR raw and processed data since 1996. Total volume of the stored data is more than 300 Gbytes.

Data Basis, GIS, Data Flow:

National Oceanographic Data Center of Ukraine :

The Data Center is served by the Department of Marine Information Systems & Technologies (MIST Dept.) of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences

Data center products and services developed and made available: • Catalogue of oceanographic data holdings in the Ukrainian Marine Centers for the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea and other World Ocean regions; • The Black Sea Multidisciplinary Digital Atlas; • Climatic Atlas of the Location of the Hydrogen Sulfide Contamination Zone Upper Boundary in the Black Sea ; • Information & Analytical System on the Black Sea Level Investigations; • Database Management System for the Black Sea bibliography; • Black Sea Information System; • Oceanographic Database Management System.

Marine Branch of Hydrometeorological Institute:

Marine Branch of Hydrometeorological Institute has developed a Geographical Information System "Hydrometeorology and Marine Chemistry of the Black and Azov Seas ."

The system provides an easy access to archival oceanographic, meteorological and chemical information of the region and consists of database and programme software that allows working with archive information to the wide range of users familiar with Windows environment. The main data sources are the network of the former Soviet Union shore and estuarine stations, cruises of research vessels and archive synoptic maps. List of variables includes sea water temperature and salinity, air temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, cloudiness, precipitation, sea level, waves, river runoff, dissolved oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, nutrients, technogenic pollutants.

Period of observations ranges from 10 to 100 years subject to element and location. GIS provides access to information of different levels of data processing: raw data, daily averaged data, long-term time series (monthly, yearly, anomalies), climatologic values (means and extremes).

GIS visualization capabilities allow to combine data of various types e.g. graphs of time-series on shore stations and maps of variables. Cartographic layers consist of bathymetry, rivers, land relief, and settlements.

Human Resources:

Staff of the MHI NASU - 440:

Scientists - 160

Dr. Scientists - 27

PhD - 78

Post graduate students - 21

Staff of the IBSS - 361:

Scientists - 137

Dr. Scientists - 21

PhD - 112

Post graduate students - 8

Staff of the UkrSCES - 200:

Scientists and engineers - 137

Dr. Scientists - 2

PhD - 10

Staff of the MB UHMI - 55:

Scientists and engineers - 34

Technicians - 11

PhD - 6